This study investigated the association between dose, pattern, and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and birth defects. Compared with abstinence, heavy alcohol use in the first trimester was associated with a fourfold increase in risk of birth defects. The study found no association between low or moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and birth defects.
Authors: Colleen M. O'Leary, Natasha Nassar, Jennifer J. Kurinczuk, Nicholas de Klerk, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Elizabeth J. Elliott, Carol Bower
Date: October 2010